TYPHOID fever is a systemic infection with the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. This highly adapted, human specific pathogenhas evolved remarkable mechanisms for persistence in its host that help to ensure its survival and transmission. Typhoid fever was an important cause of illness and death in the overcrowded and unsanitary urban conditions of the United States and Europe in the 19th century.The provision of clean water and good sew age systems led to a dramatic decrease in the incidence of typhoid in these regions. Today most of the burden of the disease occurs in the developing world, where sanitary conditions remain poor.
Typhoid Fever C. M. PARRY, M.B., T. T. HIEN, M.D.,G DOU.GAN, PH.D., N. J. WHITE, M.D., D.SC., J. J. FARRAR, M.B., D.PHIL. N Engl J Med, Vol. 347, No. 22 · November 28, 2002